Stones Of Faith - Pennsylvania Germans and their Gravestones
GENERAL INFORMATION
GRAVESTONES

BY LOCATION

Pennsylvania and American German Gravestone Guide

Bibliography and Notes

Aries, Philippe (Translated by Lloyd, Janet), Images Of Man And Death, Harvard University Press, 1985

Bainton, Roland, Here I Stand - A Life of Martin Luther
Note: #30 - pg. 353

Barba, Preston A., Pennsylvania German Tombstones - A Study In Folk Art, Schlechter's, 1954 - Note: Good hand drawn illustrations by Barba's wife, but take explanations of symbols with a large grain of salt

Bartruff, Andreas - The last will and testament, Lancaster County Records, (Ref. G-1-387)
Note: #31

Begtholt, Philip - the last will and testament, Lancaster County Records, (Ref. F-1-19)
Note: #24

Benes, Peter the Mask Of Orthodoxy: Folk Gravestone Carving In Plymouth county, Massachusetts 1689 - 1805, 1977

Bergstrasse Evangelical Lutheran Church, Ephrata Township, Lancaster Co. - Parochial Registers, 1753-1915
Note: #3

Bird, Michael S., Ontario Fraktur: A Pennsylvania German Folk Tradition In Early Canada, M. F. Feheley Publishers Ltd, 1977

Brehm, Philip - The last will and testament, Lancaster County Records, (Ref. I-1-285)
Note: #36 - Inventory appraisal of Philip Brehm estate

Christensen, Carl C., Art And The Reformation In Germany, Ohio University Press, 1979

Combs, Diana Williams, Early Gravestone Art In Georgia And South Carolina, The University Of Georgia Press, 1986

Cooper, J.C., An Illustrated Encyclopaedia Of Traditional Symbols, Thames and Hudson, 1978

Diffenderffer, F.R., "The Rose Question", Lancaster County Historical Society Papers and Addresses, Lancaster, 1901, reprint Krause Reprint Co., New York, 1970 Oct 4 and Nov. 1, 1901

Ernst, James E., Ephrata - A History, Schlechter's 1963
Notes: #6 - pg. 214-215; #11 - pg. 164; #12 - pg. 327-331; #13 - pg. 143

Garvan, Beatrice B. and Hummel, Charles F., The Pennsylvania Germans: A Celebrations Of Their Arts 1683 - 1850, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1982

Graves, Thomas E., "Pennsylvania German Gravestones: An Introduction", Markers V - The Journal of The Association for Gravestone Studies, University Press of America, Lanham MD, 1988
Note: #1 - pg. 63, #27 - pg. 65-66. The Samuel J. Dondore stone in Berks County

Heiges, George L., Henry W Stiegel and His Associates, 1948
Note: #26 - pg. 112-113

Hinckle, George - The last will and testament - July 10, 1777, Lancaster County Records, (Ref. C-1-508)
Note: #4

Hulme, F. Edward, F.L.S., F.S.A.,The Principles and Practices of Symbolism in Christian Art, Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1891/Gale Research Co., Detroit Michigan, 1969
Note: #23 - pg. 214

Hunter, Doreen and Willsher, Betty., Stones: 18th Centruy Scottish Gravestones, Taplinger Publishing Co., 1979

The King James Version of the Bible
Note: #35 - Revelations 22 verse 16

Illick, Joseph, Colonial Pennsylvania: A History, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976

Jordan, Mildred The Distelfink Country Of The PA Dutch, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1978

Jordan, Terry G. Texas Graveyards, A Cultural Legacy, Univ. of Texas Press, 1982

King, Mary Louise, Western Architecture, Henry Z. Walck, Inc., 1967

Kuhns, Oscar, "The German-Swiss Settlements Of Colonial Pennsylvania: A Study Of The So-Called Pennsylvania Dutch", The Pennsylvania German Magazine, April 1912

Lichten, Frances, Folk Art Motifs Of Pennsylvainia, Dover Publications, 1954

Ludwig, Allan I., Graven Images, New England Stone Carving And Its Symbols, 1650-1815, Wesleyan University Press: Middletown, Connecticut, 1966
Note: #2 - pg. 67-77

The Luther Rose Graphics [http://www.lcms.org/president /literature/essays/lutherrose.asp], Quote from "Martin Luther, Letter to Lazarus Spengler, July 8, 1530, as included in the translation by Amy Marga from Luthers Siegel: Eine elementare Deutung seiner Theologie, in Luther 67 (1996):6687. Translation printed in Lutheran Quarterly, Vol. XIV, Num. 4, Winter 2000, pg. 409-410..."
Note: #34 - "...And around this field is a golden ring, symbolizing that such blessedness in Heaven lasts forever and has no end. Such blessedness is exquisite, beyond all joy and goods, just as gold is the most valuable, most precious and best metal."

Parsons, William T., The Pennsylvania Dutch: A Persistent Minority, Twayne Publishers, 1976

Ravensway, Charles, The Arts And Architecture Of German Settlements In Missouri: A Survey Of a Vanishing Culture, University of Missouri, 1977

Rupp, I.D., "An Account Of The Manners Of The German Inhabitants Of Pennsylvania In 1789", The Pennsylvania German Magazine March 1909

Sachse, Julius Friedrich, The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania Vol. I & II, Philadelphia, 1900, reprint AMS Press, Inc. New York, 1971
Notes: #5 - vI, pg. 354; #9 - vI, pg. 469-474; #10 - vI, pg. 15; #14 - vI, pg. 15; #15 - vI, pg. 411-412; #16 - vI, pg. 398; vI, #22 - pg. 418; #25 - pg. 430-432

Sachse, Julius Fredrick, "The Ephrata Paper Mill", Lancaster County Historical Society Papers and Addresses 1897, Lancaster, reprint Krause Reprint Co., New York, 1970, March 5, 1897
Note: #17

Schlee, Ernst, German Folk Art, Kodansha International Ltd., 1980

Schmidt, Ph., Die Illustration der Lutherbibel: 1522-1700, Verlag Friedrich Reinhardt, Basel, Germany, 1962
Note: #32 - pg. 455

Shea, John G. The Pennsylvania Dutch And Their Furniture, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1980

Shelley, Donald A.The Fraktur-Writings Or Illuminated Manuscripts Of The Pennsylvania Germans, Schlechter's, 1961

Sommer, Frank M., "German Language Books, Periodicals, and Manuscripts, Arts of the Pennsylvania Germans, The Henry Francis Dupont Winterthur Museum, W.W. Norton & Co., 1983
Note: #28 - pg. 283 & fig. 272

Stoudt, John Joseph, Pennsylvania Folk Art, Schlechter's, 1948
Notes: #7 - pg. 101, 106, 125; #8 - pg. 82

Stoudt, John Joseph, Pennsylvania Folk Art - An Interpretation, The Pennsylvania German Folklore Society, 1966
Notes: #39 - pg .192; #40 - pg. 86; #41 - pg. 100; #42 - pg. 23; #43 - pg. 82; #44 - pg. 16; #47 - pg. 68-69; #48 - pg. 95; #49 - pg. 127; #50 - pg. 106

Stoudt, John Joseph, Early Pennsylvania Arts and Crafts, A. S. Barnes and Company, Inc., New York, 1964
Notes: #45 - pg. 245; #46 - pg. 310

Stowell, Marion Barber, Early American Almanacs: The Colonial Weekday Bible, Burt Franklin, 1977

Swank, Scott T., "Proxemic Patterns", Arts of the Pennsylvania Germans, The Henry Francis Dupont Winterthur Museum W.W. Norton & Co., 1983
Note: #37 - pg. 57

Jacobs, G. Walker, Stanger Stop And Cast An Eye, The Stephen Greene Press, 1972

Weiser, Frederick S., "Fraktur", Arts of the Pennsylvania Germans, The Henry Francis Dupont Winterthur Museum, W.W. Norton & Co., 1983
Notes: #38 - pg. 243, fig. 233; #51 - pg. 24, fig. 231; #52 - pg. 263, fig. 260

Winkler, Louis, "Pennsylvania German Astronomy and Astrology: I.Almanacs", Pennsylvania Folklife Spring 1972, Pennsylvania Folklife Society, Collegeville, Pennsylvania
Note: #20 - pg. 28

Winkler, Louis, "Pennsylvania German Astronomy and Astrology: II.The Moon", Pennsylvania Folklife Summer 1972, Pennsylvania Folklife Society, Collegeville, Pennsylvania
Note: #21 - pg. 26

200th Anniversary - Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church, Manheim Pa, 1972
Note: #29 - pg. 15, 16; #58 - pg. 8

Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church Parish Registers, 1771 - 1812, Manheim, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, translation by Pastor J.F. Knittle (1938) and Pastor Frederick S. Weiser (1973)
Note: #33 - pg. 46-49

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Copyright 1985-2005 Sandra J. Hardy. All rights reserved.